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ORLANDO, Fla. – Each year, Americans observe Hispanic Heritage Month from Sept. 15 through Oct. 15 celebrating contributions, histories and deep ties in the community that have shaped much of the nation’s landscape today.

The month is meant to recognize the cultures that stem from Spain, Mexico, the Caribbean, Central America and South America.

Hispanic Heritage Month starts in mid-September -- and it’s for a symbolic reason.

Many Central American countries declared their independence Sept. 15, with Mexico and Chile celebrating their independence days on Sept. 16 and Sept. 18, respectively. Hispanic Heritage Month recognizes all of those independence days as they paved the way for the United States to interact with the individual nations in a new way.

September 15: Central American Independence Days

The start date was chosen to honor the anniversary of independence of five Hispanic countries: Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras and Nicaragua, all of which declared independence from Spain in 1821.

Read about their journey to independence below.

Costa Rica

9. Costa Rica (iStock / RamiKatzav)

Christopher Columbus is often credited for stumbling upon Costa Rica in 1502 and giving it its name, which means “rich coast.” Home originally to Nahuatl culture and influenced by the Chibcha tribe, both cultures were eliminated in the area by diseases such as smallpox when the Spanish colonized the country.

Its geographic location was impractical to establish useful trade routes, thus largely ignored by the Spanish Monarchy and left to develop on its own. This meant Costa Rica was largely free of Spanish intervention, but it also contributed to its poverty as it didn’t experience the prosperity other Central American nations were benefiting from. With its indigenous communities wiped out and its population left to fend for themselves, Costa Rica became a “rural democracy,” with no oppressed classes, thus joining other Central American provinces to declare independence from Spain.

El Salvador

FILE - In this June 16, 2020 file photo, vehicles circulate on Army Boulevard, on the second day of the reopening of the economy, three-months after a lockdown aimed at preventing the spread of the new coronavirus in Soyapango, El Salvador. For months, the strictest measures confronting the COVID-19 pandemic in Latin America seemed to keep infections in check, in El Salvador, but a gradual reopening combined with a political stalemate has seen infections increase nearly fourfold by August. (AP Photo/Salvador Melendez, File) (Copyright 2020 The Associated Press. All rights reserved)

El Salvador or “The Republic of the Saviour” has a storied past of revolutions, with lasting impacts seen today. Currently, the smallest and most densely populated country in Central America, the Spanish Empire conquered the territory that would be ruled by the Viceroyalty of New Spain from Mexico City in the 1500s. It would eventually be declared the Captaincy General of Guatemala, or part of the Kingdom of Guatemala, another subset of Spanish rule. After more than 300 years, it would break free from Spanish rule and declare independence officially becoming a sovereign nation a few years later in 1841.


Devotees kneel in prayer before a makeshift altar honoring the patron saint of the Guatemalan capital, the Virgin of the Assumption, marking her feast day in the courtyard of the church bearing her name that is closed to the public, in Guatemala City, Saturday, Aug. 15, 2020. Catholic pilgrims gathered outside the church despite the postponement of religious celebrations as a measure to help curb the spread of the new coronavirus. (AP Photo/Moises Castillo) (Copyright 2020 The Associated Press. All rights reserved)

In 1523, Pedro de Alvarado, a member of Hernán Cortés' group that conquered Mexico, was sent to conquer the area of land below Mexico that is known today as Guatemala. After going to war with the region’s Mayan population, the Spanish Crown had official rule over the area by 1540. Its conquerors ruled the area from Mexico, but Guatemala enjoyed significant freedom in terms of how it governed locally especially as a central location for Spain’s Central American provinces. It eventually grew restless for its own freedom as it continued to grow as a prosperous country. After its neighbor Mexico shook Spanish rule, Guatemala did the same, declaring its independence in a collaborative effort with other Central American nations.


Migrants carrying Honduran flags walk along a highway in hopes of reaching the distant United States, near Agua Caliente, Guatemala, Thursday, Jan. 16, 2020, on the border with Honduras. Hundreds of Honduran migrants started walking and hitching rides Wednesday from the city of San Pedro Sula, in a bid to form the kind of migrant caravan that reached the U.S. border in 2018. (AP Photo/Santiago Billy) (Copyright 2019 The Associated Press. All rights reserved)

Honduras is shaped by its turbulent history, beginning when Central America was used as a land bridge connecting North and South America. Some did not make it to their destination but rather stayed and created a new culture. Various tribes of different ethnicities laid roots there, with Mayans taking over much of the region until its city’s collapse.

Everything changed when in his fourth and final voyage, Christopher Columbus journeyed to the New World and landed on Hondura’s Bay Islands in 1502. He was the first European to reach Central America, putting it on Spain’s radar.

Multiple Spanish explorers spent the next 20 years traveling through Central America, conquering its various regions -- eventually meeting in Honduras. The isthmus became the bloody battleground as Spanish conquistadors came from all different directions fighting each other and the land’s indigenous people for control. Honduras had silver -- making it an economic hot spot. Spanish rule was solidified in 1539, but it was never full in control. The British eventually stepped in, backing the Miskito tribe against the Spanish -- an indigenous tribe they never conquered. Honduras, like many other Central American nations, become part of the Captaincy-General, which was an extension of the Spanish Crown ruling from Mexico. This subset broke free from Mexico, and it, along with Central America a few weeks later, declared independence from Spain.

Honduras, put under so much turmoil over who was ruling it, never really wanted Central America to dissolve into its own countries but rather wanted to remain a united nation. Its flag serves as a testament to this history, with five stars representing the five nations that made up the original Federal Republic of Central America.


A young man walks in an empty Plaza de la Fe, in Managua, Nicaragua, Tuesday, April 7, 2020. Restaurants are empty, there's little traffic in the streets and beach tourists are sparse headed into Holy Week despite the government's encouragement for Nicaraguans to go about their normal lives. (AP Photo/Alfredo Zuniga) (Copyright 2020 The Associated Press. All rights reserved)

The first European to set eyes on Nicaragua was Christopher Columbus, but it was Gonzalez Davila who helped conquer it.

Earning the trust of the indigenous peoples, he forced its chief, Nicarao, to convert to Christianity. The country is named after the cacique chief with the word agua, water, at the end of it to honor the regions many lakes and rivers.

Historians say the 300 years between the 1520s and Nicaraguan independence were uneventful. The Spanish realized it wasn’t the wealthy land full of gold they thought it was. The Spanish who were there mixed with the indigenous people, creating the mestizo ethnicity, with the British staking their claim in other parts of the region. Nicaragua eventually became a province of the Captaincy General of Guatemala, which in itself was overseen by the Viceroyalty of New Spain and what later became Mexico. Nicaragua declared its independence shortly after Mexico claimed its own sovereignty.

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Unchanged Real Madrid begins title defense in Spanish league

MADRID (AP) — Real Madrid is keeping most of the same players to try to win back-to-back Spanish leagues for the first time in more than a decade.

Madrid begins its title defense on Sunday at Real Sociedad with practically the same squad that a few months ago lifted its first league trophy in three years. It hasn’t won consecutive leagues since 2007-08 as Barcelona has dominated domestically.

The Catalan rival won eight leagues since Madrid’s last double, including three in a row from 2009-11. Barcelona won two in a row in 2015-16 and 2018-19. Madrid’s other titles in the last decade came in 2012 and 2017.

The league began last weekend but Madrid didn’t play because it received extra time to rest after competing last month in the Champions League round of 16. Barcelona and Atlético Madrid, who made it to the quarterfinals of the Champions League, won’t play in the first two rounds. Europa League winner Sevilla also had its first two games postponed.

Madrid won its only preseason match on Tuesday against Getafe.

Coach Zinedine Zidane is sticking to a formula that utilizes the entire squad, and isn’t afraid of switching schemes — he went from tactics that focused on three forwards at times, or three defenders, and even five midfielders in some circumstances.

The main player who left was James Rodríguez, who joined Everton in the English Premier League. Gareth Bale also was expected to leave and was close to a transfer to Tottenham. But neither Rodríguez nor Bale played a big role in Madrid’s 34th league title, when the team won 10 straight matches after the coronavirus break to overtake Barcelona for the lead.

Zidane kept the key players from that run, notably striker Karim Benzema and defender Sergio Ramos, who combined for 13 goals in the team’s final 11 league matches. Benzema will continue to be supported by young Brazilians Vinícius Júnior and Rodrygo, and also, hopefully, by an Eden Hazard who won’t have to endure so many injury problems as he did last season — his first with the club.

Thibaut Courtois returns as the starting goalkeeper, and captain Ramos will be flanked by Raphael Varane again, with veteran Marcelo and Ferland Mendy exchanging starts in the left back position. Dani Carvajal will likely start at right back, with competition from Álvaro Odriozola after a brief loan to Bayern Munich.

Back from a loan to Real Sociedad was youngster Martin Odegaard, who will be a midfield option to make up for the absence of Rodríguez. The defensive midfield will again be anchored by the experienced trio of Casemiro, Luka Modric and Toni Kroos. Federico Valverde will likely be used often as well, while Francisco “Isco” Alarcón and Marco Asensio remain available as attacking midfielders.

Madrid made some decent cash in the offseason by loaning the likes of right back Achraf Hakimi to Inter Milan and youngster Óscar Rodríguez to Sevilla. Left back Sergio Reguilón is set to move to Tottenham after a stint with Sevilla.

Young Japan forward Takefusa Kubo was loaned to Villarreal, while Reinier will play with Borussia Dortmund, and Brahim Diaz with AC Milan. Defender Jesús Vallejo will be loaned to Granada, and goalkeeper Alphonse Areola returned to Paris Saint-Germain after a season with Madrid.


Villarreal and coach Unai Emery will host Eibar on Saturday, while Real Betis and Manuel Pellegrini will welcome Valladolid on Sunday. Huesca and Cádiz will meet on Sunday in a matchup of promoted clubs.


For the second weekend in a row the league had to change the original schedule because of a dispute with the Spanish soccer federation over games on Fridays and Mondays. Friday’s match between Getafe and Osasuna was moved to Saturday, while Monday’s game between Real Betis and Valladolid was moved to Sunday. Two second-division matches also were rescheduled.

All matches will continue to be played without fans.


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