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Ten billion years ago, another galaxy slammed into the Milky Way.

But it has taken until now for astronomers to discover the massive, “fossil galaxy” still in our midst, according to a report in the Independent.

Researchers at the Apache Point Observatory Galactic Evolution Experiment project (APOGEE) announced the discovery on Friday, the Independent reports.

They’ve dubbed the fossil galaxy “Hercules,” and they say that its stars were discovered within the Milky Way’s “Halo,” the cloud of stars furthest from our galaxy’s brighter center.

“It is really small in the cosmological context – only 100 million stars,” Dr. Ricardo Schiavon said of the remnants of Hercules.

“But it accounts for almost half the mass of the entire Milky Way halo,” added Schiavon, a scientist with the Liverpool John Moores University’s Astrophysics Research Institute.

Dr.Schiavon and his team could tell the stars of the Milky Way and Hercules apart due to their different chemical composition and velocity.

“APOGEE lets us pierce through that dust and see deeper into the heart of the Milky Way than ever before,” Dr. Schiavon said.

Based on the scientific data, the researchers have concluded that the collision of both galaxies “must have been a major event in the history of our galaxy,” Schiavon said.

The researchers also stated that this incident makes the Milky Way unusual because other “spiral galaxies had much calmer early lives.”

As our cosmic home, the Milky Way is already special to us, but this ancient galaxy buried within makes it even more special,” Dr.Schiavon said.

Filed under england ,  liverpool ,  milky way ,  space ,  11/21/20

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Judge: Detained Immigrants Must See a Judge Within 10 Days

By LARRY NEUMEISTER, Associated Press

NEW YORK (AP) — Newly detained immigrants must appear before a judge within 10 days, rather than the weeks or months they’ve sometimes had to endure in recent years, a judge said Monday.

Civil rights groups praised the ruling by U.S. District Judge Alison J. Nathan as the first of its kind in the nation to set such a rule for the U.S. Immigrations and Customs Enforcement agency.

They said in a release that the ruling would strike a blow to federal immigration authorities who hold detained immigrants indefinitely before they appear before a judge.

The judge said a law authorizing the detention of immigrants while removal proceedings are pending “does not negate class members’ interests — of the utmost importance — in freedom from imprisonment.”

“Class members may not have a ‘fundamental right to be released during removal proceedings,’ but nor does the Government have an unfettered right to detain them,” she added.

In 2014, the average wait to see a judge was 11 days, but it had stretched to over a month in 2017 and nearly three months in 2018, according to the judge's ruling.

Messages for comment was sent to the Justice Department, which represented the agency in court, and ICE, which falls under the Department of Homeland Security.

“A few weeks or months of sitting in inhumane ICE detention facilities can be dangerous and devastating for individuals and their families," said Niji Jain, an attorney at The Bronx Defenders. "The Court’s ruling recognizes that prompt access to an immigration judge is a fundamental right — one that is all the more important when detention facilities are hotbeds for the spread of COVID-19.”

“Locking people up for months before they first see a judge during immigration proceedings is unjust and unlawful, and it does immense harm to immigrant families,” said Bobby Hodgson, staff attorney at the New York Civil Liberties Union.

Class member Shemar Michel said ICE officers told him he'd be home by dinner time when they picked him up as he prepared his children for school. He said he didn't see a judge for six weeks.

“During that time, I was mentally shattered, I missed my son’s second birthday, and I felt like I had no chance to fight my case. I told the ICE officers I would rather buy my own plane ticket home than stay in ICE detention any longer," he said. "I hope the judge’s ruling ensures nobody will have to go through what I went through.”

The civil rights groups said in their release that many individuals held for months were entitled to release. They said about 40% of them were eventually released on bond. Others, they added, were U.S. citizens or lawful permanent residents.

The groups said the average petitioners have lived in the United States for 16 years and nearly a third are lawful permanent residents.

The judge granted class action status to a lawsuit by civil rights groups filed two years ago in Manhattan federal court. She noted that the federal government had never filed arguments opposing the designation.

Copyright 2020 The Associated Press. All rights reserved. This material may not be published, broadcast, rewritten or redistributed.

Tags: Associated Press, courts, immigration, lawsuits, New York

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