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Many high level Iranian officials should be charged for the shooting down of a Ukrainian commercial airliner in January 2020, a UN human rights expert h as said, describing the killing of the 176 people aboard as a “profound and serious indictment” of the country’s civil and military authorities.

Agnès Callamard, the UN special rapporteur on extrajudicial, summary or arbitrary executions, delivered a 45-page letter to the Iranian government which was made public on Tuesday, outlining her findings from a six-month investigation into the disaster, and complaining about the lack of Iranian cooperation, which has left many of her questions unanswered.

Callamard issued a particularly strong condemnation of the Tehran government’s treatment of the victims’ families, who she said had been harassed and threatened, denied the return of remains and personal effects, and forced to go along with officially staged “martyr” funerals.

Ukraine International Airlines flight PS752 was shot down by an Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps (IRGC) air defence missile battery shortly after it took off from Tehran’s international airport, at a time of high tensions, five days after a US drone strike killed an IRGC commander, Qassem Suleimani.

The plane was bound for Kyiv but had 55 citizens and 30 permanent residents of Canada aboard. After denying responsibility for several days, Tehran said the Boeing 737-800 was shot down by mistake by an air defence crew who mistook it for an incoming US missile.

“The inconsistencies in the official explanations seem designed to create a maximum of confusion and a minimum of clarity. They seem contrived to mislead and bewilder,” Callamard, said in the letter, which was sent to Tehran 60 days ago with a set of questions but has yet to get a reply.

The Iranian mission to the UN did not respond to a request for comment on Tuesday evening.

“At best, what we have here is an extraordinarily incompetent succession of actions … to such an extent that they would be in my view, in a criminal court, be described as criminal and reckless,” Callamard told the Guardian.

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She added that the downing of the plane was a “profound and serious indictment of Iran, both military and civilian authorities, in terms of the violations of their human rights obligations”.

The official Iranian account details a series of technical breakdowns and human errors that led to the tragedy, but Callamard said they just raised more questions that Tehran had failed to answer.

For example, the official account said the mobile missile unit that fired the two Russian-made Tor missiles that brought down the airliner had not been properly calibrated, so the radar systems showed the aircraft as incoming rather than outbound.

Callamard said she had not been given any explanation as to why this miscalibration happened, why it had not been detected, or why it had led to the missiles being fired. It was also unclear why the crew had not followed standard operating procedures that would have prevented the launch, why the airport had not been closed at a time of high tension and why the investigation was botched. The crash scene was looted and bulldozed before international inspectors arrived.

There have been conflicting reports about the arrest and prosecution of the missile crew, but Callamard said: “In terms of accountability, unfortunately we cannot expect Iran to charge those at the top or even the middle of the chain of command, and there are many high-level officials who should be charged.”

There was no evidence, she added, that Iran had made the fundamental changes necessary to give the rest of the world assurance that the same mistakes would not be made again.

Callamard’s letter lambasts the Iranian government for the treatment of the bereaved families. In many cases, personal items went missing after the looting of the crash site and baggage.

Related: A visual guide to the Iran plane crash

“Iranian officials sought to coerce families into publicly declaring their support for the government or risk the non-return of their loved ones’ remains,” the letter said. “Many families were reportedly also denied private funerals. Victims were declared ‘martyrs’ who died for their country. As a result, funerals were heavily controlled.”

The inscription “congratulations on your martyrdom” was placed on the coffins of the victims against the wishes of the families, the letter added.

Families in Iran and Canada, it said, had been received death threats for being critical of Iran.

Callamard told the Guardian the treatment of grieving families was “cynical, cruel and criminal”.

She said she hoped that international efforts, in particular by Canada and Ukraine, would not be bought off or held hostage by the desire to salvage the 2015 nuclear deal with Iran.

Callamard said: “Under no circumstances should the search for justice for PS752 be impaired by the equally important search for a nuclear deal.”

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Tags: at a time of high treatment the treatment shooting down was shot down the plane the plane the official the official had not been would not be human rights nuclear deal the iranian air defence in terms in terms families to the iran the missile

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Fitness expert, 32, reveals the daily diet and workout secrets that keep her in shape all year - and the exact routines behind her impossibly ripped physique

A leading fitness model has revealed the daily diet and workout regime that keeps her looking lean and toned, and the fitness secrets she swears by to stay fit.

Hattie Boydle, 32, from Sydney, has won a number of fitness competitions over the years, and said she needs to keep her diet clean but rich in nutrients in order to stay looking and feeling her best. 

'Food is energy, and it is also nutrients, so I aim to get a variety of nutrients from plants, animal proteins, carbohydrates and fats coming into my diet,' Hattie told FEMAIL.

'There are foods I eat sparingly, and I enjoy them more when I haven't had them for some time.' 

A leading fitness model has revealed the daily diet and workout regime that keeps her looking lean and toned, and the fitness secrets she swears by to stay fit (Hattie Boydle pictured in the new Muscle Nation range)

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Hattie Boydle (pictured), 32, from Sydney, has won a number of fitness competitions, and said she needs to keep her diet clean but rich in nutrients in order to stay looking her best

The 32-year-old said while she tends to stay away from fried foods, these days she doesn't really ban herself from eating anything in particular.

What is Hattie's day on a plate?

BREAKFAST ONE: 100 grams of sourdough with 20 grams of low fat cream cheese. One whole egg and 150 grams of egg whites with 100 grams of rocket.

BREAKFAST TWO: 100 grams of sourdough with 20 grams of low fat cream cheese and 20 grams of honey. One long black with 100mL full cream milk and one teaspoon of sugar.

MID-MORNING (PRE-TRAINING): One skim cappuccino.

LUNCH: 400 grams of Basmati rice, 20 grams of Hoisin sauce, 75 grams of sardines, 100 grams of beetroot and 100 grams of cooked spinach.

MID-AFTERNOON: 200 grams of Chobani yoghurt, 100 grams of frozen blueberries, 100 grams of frozen raspberries, 100 grams of apple and 25 grams of Whittaker's chocolate.

DINNER: 80 grams of lean beef mince, 300 grams of Basmati rice or pasta, 100 grams of zucchini, 100 grams of carrot and 100 grams of pumpkin.

DESSERT: One Jarrah hot chocolate. 

Hattie typically has two breakfasts to fuel her for a morning workout: a sweet breakfast and a savoury option.

Upon waking, she'll enjoy sourdough bread with cream cheese, egg and rocket, followed by another slice of sourdough, which she this time tops with cream cheese and honey.

She'll also have two coffees throughout the morning: a long black with full cream milk and a teaspoon of sugar, and later a skim cappuccino.

At lunchtime, Hattie normally has something like Basmati rice with Hoisin sauce, sardines, beetroot and spinach.

She doesn't deprive herself of snacks either, enjoying natural yoghurt, frozen blueberries, raspberries, apple and a couple of squares of chocolate in the afternoon.

'Dinner is lean beef mince, Basmati rice or pasta, zucchini, carrot and pumpkin,' Hattie said.

'I always have a Jarrah hot chocolate to end the day.' 

Hattie said if you want to eat healthily to get lean, you need to think about calories in and calories out:

'It's all about managing energy (calories), but there are some foods that should form the base of your diet,' she said.

You should aim for around three or four servings of protein per day, at least five servings of vegetables and at least two servings of fruit.

'A variety of different choices on any given day helps to feed your gut microbiome and gives you the right micronutrients,' Hattie said.

Hattie works out hard, around five days a week, and she sometimes does all over strength workouts and on other days focuses on movements that isolate particular muscles (pictured)

What are Hattie's weekly workouts?


Back squats 3 x 5

Front squats 5 x 5

Incline bench press 2 x 8

Tricep extension 2 x 15

Bicep curls 2 x 15


Single leg RDL 4 x 8

seated hamstring curl 4 x 8

Lying hamstring curl 2 x 25

Barbell hip thrust 3 x 20

Single arm lat row 6 x 12


Single leg hip extension 5 x 12

Back extension 4 x 20

Lateral raise 4 x 10

Chest supported rear delt fly 3 x 20


High bar back squat 5 x 3

Sumo deadlift 4 x 8


Romanian RDL 4 x 8

Back extension 4 x 15

Barbell hip thrust 4 x 8

Seated lateral raise 4 x 10

Lying lateral raise 3 x 20

Source: Hattie Boydle 


Hattie has certain days where she targets her glutes (pictured), both with bodyweight exercises and weight-based workouts in the gym

The 32-year-old (pictured) doesn't deprive herself of any foods, but does like to stay away from fried foods where possible and eat a balanced range of protein, fat and carbs

What are Hattie's fitness and diet secrets? 

* Eat a balanced mix of protein, fat and carbohydrates.

* Don't deprive yourself of the foods you love: find healthier versions.

* Start small with exercise and build up rather than going from zero to hero and crashing down again.

* Work out with a community to stay focused.

* Concentrate on specific areas like your glutes and shoulders to see results. 

When it comes to training, Hattie is strict with her own routine.

She trains five days a week and rests on Wednesdays and Sundays to allow her body to recover.

On Mondays and Fridays, she focuses on all over strength, while Tuesdays, Thursdays and Saturdays are dedicated to specific body parts, like her shoulders, glutes and upper body. 

'If you want to get into fitness, start with something you enjoy or that is community-based to help motivate you,' she said.

'Doing things with others helps when discomfort is present - knowing you are all in it together helps.'

Hattie said weight-bearing exercises at the gym are key for toned glutes, while you need to activate the tiny muscles in your shoulder with rows and repeated reps to see results in this area. 

Hattie recommends starting with the 'bare minimum' if you're new to exercise, and then slowly stretch yourself from zero to three sessions per week.

'Do that and then add on from there,' she said.

'If you want to get into fitness, start with something you enjoy or that is community-based to help motivate you,' Hattie (pictured) said

'The most common mistake people make is going from zero to hero and then back to zero when motivation drops and tiredness sets in,' she said (Hattie pictured)

'The most common mistake people make is going from zero to hero and then back to zero when motivation drops and tiredness sets in.

'If you go from zero and build slowly, you'll see results.' 

Hattie is currently serving as an ambassador for Muscle Nation, with whom she has just collaborated on a new sustainable activewear range, HBXMN. 

The range comprises sports bralettes, leggings, bike shorts, and mesh crop tops, and everything is crafted from elements of recycled fabrics.

For more information about the new range and to shop the new collection, please visit the Muscle Nation website here.  

Read more:
  • Hattie Boydle WBFF PRO (@hattieboydle) • Instagram photos and videos

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